Things to Do
There is more things to do in Barcelona than you could possibly cover, even during a longer holiday. Make sure you make the best of your holiday and experience it all - observe the astonishing architectural sites like Sagrada Familia, wander through the stunning parks of Barcelona like Parc Güell, spend family time in Barcelona Zoo, check the latest fashion trends on Passeig de Gracia and watch a movie in open air in the moat of Castell de Montjuïc.
The following sites aren't by chance on the UNESCO's world heritage list. These sites aren't to be missed during your holiday. Barcelona has some of the most astonishing buildings in the world and you would probably regret if you didn't see them at least from the outside.
Sagrada familia(Unesco World Heritage Site)
The Basilica of the Sagrada Familia is a Barcelona landmark that can’t be missed during your visit. The church is one of the most famous architectural legacies of Antoni Gaudí. The church was meant to represent Neo-Gothic style when the first bricks were laid in 1882.
The original architect resigned due to disagreements and in 1883 Gaudí took the project over, changing its style to what it is today. La Sagrada Familia is still a work in process. In 1936, during the Spanish Civil War, the original drawings of Gaudí got burned and the building process has been slow ever since.
- Website: sagradafamilia.org
- How to get: Metro lines L2 and L5, stop at Sagrada Familia.
La Pedrera (Unesco World Heritage Site)
One of the two Gaudí’s masterpieces on the street Passeig de Gracia is Casa Milà or more commonly known as La Pedrera (The Quarry), coming from its uneven grey stone facade. Gaudí designed the house for a local business man Pere Milá i Camps in 1905-1910.
A visit inside takes you from rooftop to courtyards, giving an understanding of Gaudí’s architecture through models, audiovisuals and objects. The site is very popular in the summer time and the queues fill up already before the doors open. If you’re not keen on standing on queues and have an extra penny to spend, I recommend buying the Premium ticket to skip the queues.
- Website: lapedrera.com
- How to get: Metro lines L3 and L5, stop at Diagonal. The line L3 takes you closer to La Pedrera as it has an exit straight to Passeig de Gracia.
Casa Batlló (Unesco World Heritage Site)
Another building on Passeig de Gracia street that sticks to your eye from far ahead is the modernistic Casa Battló, home of a textile entrepreneur Josep Battló. Antoni Gaudí renovated the building in 1905-1907 to its current look of bright colored mosaic, curvy line and arched rooftop to resemble the back of a dragon.
- Website: casabatllo.es
- How to get: Metro lines L2, L3 and L4, stop at Passeig de Gracia.
Hospital de Sant Pau (Unesco World Heritage Site)
Hospital de Sant Pau is without a doubt one of the most beautiful hospitals ever built. I recommend strolling the street Avinguda de Gaudí that runs diagonally between La Sagrada Familia and Hospital de Sant Pau. The hospital, designed by Luis Muntaner i Domenech, was build 1905-1930 to replace the old Santa Pau hospital located in Raval. Hospital Sant Pau doesn't work as hospital any more but as a museum and a gallery.
A stroll along the Avinguda de Gaudí from Sagrada Familia to Sant Pau hospital takes about 20 minutes an it’s one of the most beautiful streets in whole Barcelona.
- Website: santpaubarcelona.org
- How to get: Metro Line L4, stop at Hospital de Sant Pau-Guinardó and Line L5, stop at Sant Pau-2 de maig.
Things to do for families
There is a multitude of activities to do for families in Barcelona. Here are a few memorable ideas. Of course activity suggestions on this page suit for families as well, but in this section children are the priority.
One the top recommendations as a family activity is to go to CosmoCaixa science center. CosmoCaixa suits for both children and adults alike. Inside the massive building you will find permanent and temporary exhibitions in 5 stories where you get to interact, which keeps children entertained. One of their highlights is the Flooded Forest, which recreates 1,000 ㎡ of an Amazonian rain forest ecosystem.
- Address: Carrer d' Isaac Newton, 26
- How to get: Take the FGC Line L7 (underground train, not a metro line) from Plaça Catalunya to the last stop "Av. del Tibidabo". On the other side of the street you will see the stops of the Tramvia Blau and two bus stops next to each other. From there, get on bus 196 and get off at the next stop. There is a submarine displayed in the middle of the road by the stop, so you can´t miss it. You’ll find the CosmoCaixa behind the submarine. If you don´t want to wait for the bus, you can also walk the 800 meters from the stop to the museum. Follow the tracks of the Tramvia Blau uphill. After about 500 meters a road branching off to the left leads to the tram depot. Follow the tracks and walk past the depot on the right side. After another 200 meters you will see the museum.
Between Plaça d’Espanya and MNAC you will find the Magic Fountain. In the evenings, they do two exhibitions of water choreographic. The symphony of music, various colored and shaped jets of water is a true spectacle. The exhibition lasts approximately 20 minutes.
- Address: Plaça de Carles Buïgas
- How to get: Metro lines L1 and L3, get off at Espanya. Take the exit Fira de Barcelona. Walk through the two tall towers towards the fountains. You will surely spot them right at the two towers.
Inside the Ciutadella park you will find the Barcelona zoo, which has been there since 1888. There are over 400 species of animals inside the zoo. Some of the personal highlights are the orangutans, gorillas, hippos, and dolphins.
The variety of animals is decent but the cages are quite small, which is why the animals seem to be lethargic. The food services inside are quite limited, hot dogs and that kind of fast food, so it's better to eat before or after. A visit at the zoo takes roughly 3 hours.
- Website: Barcelona Zoo
- How to get: Metro: Take the metro line L4 to the stop: Ciutadella i Vila Olimpica. It takes only 5 minutes to walk to the zoo from the metro stop. There is an entrance at the end of Carrer de Villena. Tram: The tram line T4 has the final stop in Ciutadella i Vila Olimpica. The last stop is located right at the entrance of the zoo. Taking the tram makes sense only if you stay somewhere near Marina/Glories or Port Forum area.
L’Aquarium (Barcelona Aquarium)
The Barcelona Aquarium has been one of the top sites to visit in Barcelona for almost 30 years. There are 450 species inside the aquarium, being one of the largest aquariums in Europe. One of the most curious things is that, for an additional fee, you can do the Shark Experience, which takes you right next to the sharks. If you have a diving license you can swim in the shark tank with the caretakers, and for those who don’t have, can still go under water inside a shark cage.
- Website: Barcelona Aquarium
- How to get: The aquarium is located in Moll d’Espanya in Port Vell. You can either take the metro line L3 to Drassanes or L4 to Barceloneta and walk from those stations. The walk takes around 10 minutes.
Museu de la Xocolata
The Barcelona Chocolate Museum is not tourist hook but a venue for truly well-crafted chocolate artwork. The museum, set up by the Confectioners’ Guild in 2000, guides you into the world of Chocolate making and exhibits various chocolate sculptures, such as Camp Nou stadium.
- Website: museuxocolata.cat
- How to get: metro L4 stop Jaume I. and L1 stop Arc de Triomf.
Parks in Barcelona
The parks in Barcelona aren't just vast areas of green grass, but some of the finest art work in town is to be found inside them. These parks should be taken into consideration as a top priority when thinking of your itinerary.
Parc Güell, designed by Antoni Gaudì, is located in Gràcia, in northern Barcelona. There is a Monumental Zone inside the park, where admission is required. The area around the Monumental zone is free and you get very nice views even without paying in.
If you are going to reserve a ticket, do it early, if you know when you are going there. The number of visitors in the Monumental Zone is restricted, and there is only a half-hour window for each ticket to get in.
The distance from Catalonia Square is only a little over 3 kilometers, so it’s reachable even by walking.
How to get:
The closer to the park you are, the more uphill it will be. There are also uphills inside the park, so you might consider saving energy and taking a bus or taxi to the park or a metro to nearby. By metro: Take the Green line (L3) to the Vallcarca metro station. Walk 300 meters along the street Avinguda de Vallcarca towards the city and you will meet Baixada de la Gloria street, where you will see an escalator, which will take you all the way to the top of Parc Güell. Tickets and more information: parkguell.cat
Parc de la Ciutadella
Parc de la Ciutadella is a popular picnic place, located in Born, right next to the old town, on the eastern side of Sant Pere, Santa Caterina and Ribera.
The park is said to be the lungs of Barcelona. It’s already worth a visit because of the magnificent fountain that can be found in the North-East corner. Ciutadella also houses the Parliament of Catalonia and the Barcelona Zoo. If you're looking for a romantic place, the pond in the middle of the park is an ideal for the purpose. You can rent a rowing boat by the pond.
You don’t have to pay any admission to enter the park. If you wish to visit the Barcelona Zoo, they do charge for the admission. You reach the park with the Yellow line (L4) stopping at Barceloneta metro station or with Red line (L1) stopping at Arc de Triomf metro station.
The large Montjuïc hill rules the landscape of Barcelona in the South. Montjuïc offers stunning views over the city center and lots of activities. Many important museums are located on the hill, such as the Fundació Miró and the Museu Nacional d'Art de Catalunya-MNAC.
You will find the Olympic Stadium from Montjuïc that played the key role in 1992 Olympic Games. Another impressing site to visit, is the castle - Castell de Montjuïc, which overlooks the whole hill and beyond Barcelona. In the summer time, Montjuic open air cinema shows films in a beautiful setting right next to the castle.
How to get:
Castle of Montjuïc: The easiest way is to take bus number 150 from Plaza d’Espanya. The bus takes you all the way up to the castle.
Another way to reach the castle, is to take the metro line Green line (L3) to Parallel metro station and continue up with a funicular. The funicular leaves from the Parallel metro station and you can use it with the same ticket as you use the metro. The funicular’s end stop is located next to Joan Miró museum. From the end stop, it’s a 15-minute walk up along a steep hill to the castle. Another option to walking, is to to take a cable car from to the funicular stop, which will take you next to the castle. That cable car is quite pricey compared to the distance but the views are great.
MNAC and Olympic stadium: Take the metro to Plaza d’Espanya Red line (L1) or Green line (L3). The museum is only a 5-minute walk away and the Olympic stadium is just behind it. There is an escalator next to MNAC, so you don’t have to trouble yourself by climbing up the steep hill.
The tall Tibidabo mountain rises in the horizon in the north side of the city center. On the top of the hill, you will find a small simple theme park and the church Temple Expiatori del Sagrat Cor. The amusement park and the church aren’t that exciting, but without a doubt you will find the best views over the Barcelona from Mount Tibidabo.
How to get:
There are quite a few nice options for combining food and sightseeing. If you like doing themed food walks but don't like paying any extra for guiding, here are ideas for interesting food walks in Barcelona.
Pintxo street (Carrer de Blai)
Pintxos are traditionally slices of bread that come with different toppings pinched to the bread by a cocktail stick. At a pintxo restaurant, you will be given a plate for picking your own mix of pintxos from the counter. Different pintxos may have different prices, and the price is marked somewhere near the pintxos.
When you have finished eating, you go to the bar with your plate and your waiter charges you according how many sticks you have on your plate. In some bars, you need to show your pintxos on your plate to a waiter before starting to eat. In those cases, a waiter tells you to show the plate before eating.
Calle Blai in Poble Sec is a long and narrow street, full of great pintxo bars, and the price is cheaper than in the center. The area is popular among both locals and tourists. Here you can easily do bar hopping and taste pintxos from various bars.
- Address: Carrer de Blai (Poble Sec)
- How to get: The line Green line (L3), metro stop Poble Sec. Carrer de Blai starts next Parallel street.
Chocolate street (Carrer de Petritxol)
You will find Barcelona’s own chocolate street at the very heart of the old town. The narrow street is only 3 meters wide and 129 meters long. Carrer de Petritxol is famous among the locals, as the chocolatiers on this street carry long traditions, but it’s not much advertised in tourist guidebooks.
One of the most delicious ways to enjoy chocolate, is to have it with churros. Churros are donut bars, plain or sprinkled with sugar and you enjoy them as they are or dipped in hot chocolate sauce. This activity suits perfectly for cold winter days to warm up your body.
- Address: Carrer de Petritxol (Gotic)
- How to get: Metro stop Liceu on line Green line (L3) is only 3 minutes away by walking. Walk to the Basilica of Santa Maria del Pi, located on the other end of Carrer de Petritxol.
Palo Alto Market
The lively Palo Alto Market in a quiet part of Poblenou neighborhood is a nice alternative if you are trying to find new ways how to spend your day in Barcelona. You will find small stages of live bands, stalls of artisan products, lots of street food trucks of various cuisines to choose your food from.
- Website: paloaltomarket.com
- How to get: The metro Yellow line (L4) takes you closest to the market, stopping at the station Selva de Mar. It takes around 7 minutes to walk to the market from the station.
Shopping in Barcelona
The price level on clothing in Spain is clearly under the European average according Eurostats, so you will save a penny, if you do your shopping in Barcelona. You will have seasonal sales twice a year - summer sales start around 1. July and last until 31. August more or less, depending of the shop. The winter sales start right on 7. December and last until 6. March.
You will find a big selection of brands - from small local designers to famous international designers. The shops might open on bank holidays and occasionally even on Sundays. Also the restaurants in the shopping centers tend to have their own opening times.
Passeig de Gràcia
The most famous and glamorous shopping street of Barcelona is called Passeig de Gràcia. The 1,3 kilometer long street is full of designer shops on both side of the vast avenue. The world-famous designers such as Gucci, Stella McCartney and Prada have their shops along Passeig de Gracia.
There are some shops that offer more affordable clothing such as Mango, Zara and Macson, but if you’re not looking for the luxury brands, you might as well go elsewhere where you have bigger selection of affordable clothing.
How to get: Metro lines L2, L3 and L4, stop Passeig de Gracia
El Corte Inglés, Plaça de Catalunya
Spain’s biggest department store chain El Corte Inglés has stores in many locations in Barcelona. They offer mainly upscale brands. Clothing wise, they have departments for men, women, youth and another department for shoes. The first and the biggest El Corte Inglés of Barcelona is located on the east side of Plaça de Catalunya.
If you’re after sports items, their selection is very narrow, but they much bigger selection of El Corte Inglés of Portal de l’Àngel.
Tip: You will find very nice views towards Plaça de Catalunya from the top floor cafe of the department store.
- Website: elcorteingles.es
- How to get: Metro lines L1 and L3, stop at Plaça de Catalunya. Metro line L4, stop at Urquinaona.
Avinguda de Portal de l’Àngel
The shopping area, just crossing the road down from El Corte Inglés of Plaça de Catalunya, is Portal de l’Àngel. - The shops there offer cheaper brands than on Passeig de Gracia. Brands such as Massimo Dutti, Bershka, Mango, Foot Lockers, Zara, H&M. The El Corte Inglés has another store there, consisting mainly of sports clothing.
- How to get: Metro lines L1 and L3, stop at Plaça de Catalunya. Metro line L4, stop at Urquinaona.
Carrer de Pelai
The Pelai street starts from the top of the Rambla. It connects Plaça de Catalunya and Plaça de Universitat. The street is famous for its many shoe shops. The street is only 400 meter long and you will often find discounts even outside the big sales seasons.
- How to get: Metro lines L1 and L3, stop at Plaça de Catalunya. Metro line L2, Universitat.
Located on the longest street of Barcelona, Avinguda Diagonal, on the borde of L’Eixample and Les Corts, the shopping center L’illa Diagonal has over 170 shops. The shops are mainly focused on clothing, though you will also find shops from home ware to electronics. Major commercial clothing brands like Primark, Desigual and the big French sports shop Decathlon have shops here.
- Website: lilla.com
- How to get: Metro line L3, stop at Maria Cristina. It takes around 11 minutes to walk to the shopping center from the station.
The former bullring at Plaça de Espanya was reformed and opened as a shopping center and a exhibition venue in 2011. You will find brands such as Desigual, Benetton and Mango in Las Arenas. The selection isn't big, so if you wish to do a long shopping day, it's better to go to one of the bigger shopping centers.
Tip: There is a rooftop platform going 360 degrees around the Las Arenas, where you will find very nice views over Barcelona. There is a payable lift outside the shopping center that takes you to the rooftop, but inside the shopping center, you can take escalator up to the rooftop for free.
- Website: arenasdebarcelona.com
- How to get: Metro lines L3 and L1, stop at Espanya.
The shopping center Diagonal Mar is located in the other end of Diagonal street, in the neighborhood of Poblenou, The shopping center has around 200 shops & restaurants, thus being the second largest shopping center of Barcelona. You will find shops from various categories: electronics, clothing, home ware, accessories etc. Some the biggest shops are the clothing store Primark and the electronics store Mediamarkt.
- Website: diagonalmarcentre.es
- How to get: Metro line L4, stop at El Maresme I Fòrum.
The biggest shopping center of Barcelona, La Maquinista, is located far away from the city center, in the neighborhood of Sant Andreu. Over 200 shops in 90 000 square meters makes it the biggest shopping center of Barcelona. The selection of shops isn’t that different from what you could not find closer to the center, which is why it's worth thinking twice of going all the way there. A nice detail in La Maquinista is that the shopping center is only covered by roof. All the open and airy space makes you feel like you wouldn’t be in a shopping center.
- Website: lamaquinista.com
- How to get: Metro line L1, Torras i Bages. Lines L9N and L10, stop at Bon Pastor.
La Roca Village
The boutique outlet village La Roca is located some 40-minutes’ drive away from Barcelona city center. There are over 100 stores of big internationally renowned brands in mainly clothing and jewelry & accessories. The village resembles a typical Catalan village, which makes a nice setting for shopping.
Nevertheless, good bargains are hard to find and discounts are often quite modest though they advertise discounts up to 60%. If you count that you will spend already around 20 euros to transportation there and probably another 20-30 euros for average quality and pricey drinks and meals, you have to buy a big quantity to make the trip worth while.
- Website: larocavillage.com
- How to get: Shuttle bus Shopping Express leaves from Passeig de Gracia 6. (between Carrer Casp and Gran Via de les Corts Catalanes)
Cinema on open air has become very popular in Barcelona during the recent years and there are many venues nowadays.. The season for these cinemas is unfortunately quite short. They open only from late June to late July or early August. During this period, they run films various days a week. If it rains, these events are normally cancelled and you will get a refund if you have bought a ticket in advance.
Open-air cinema Montjuic
The most unique venue is probably next to the Montjuic castle. The screen is massive and the sound is very clear since you sit in the moat of the castle. You can either sit on the grass or rent a lounger for 3 euros. If you sit on the grass, I recommend to bring a towel or a blanket since the grass gets moist during the evening/night time. You can bring your own drinks and food to enjoy the cinema experience to the fullest! They also sell snacks, beer, wine and soft drinks at the cinema. Program for 2018 is waiting to be published. The films are shown in the original language, majority of them being Hollywood films, so you won’t be having to struggle with any dubbing.
- Website: salamontjuic.org
- How to get: There are free shuttle buses running from Plaça Espanya to the cinema Montjuïc: from 8.15pm to 9.30pm. The stop is close to the two tall towers. There will be staff of Sala Montjuic with vests to help spotting the right stop and normally there are queues at that bus stop.
Open-air cinema at the Barceloneta beach
Another nice venue for an outdoor cinema is at the beach. At the very central Barceloneta (Sant Sebastia beach), from late June to early August, they show films on Thursdays and occasionally on Sundays. The films shown at the beach are less mainstream as the films at Montjuic and shown in their original language.
- Website: cinemalliure.com
- How to get: The closest metro stop is Barceloneta, L4 line. It’s a 15 minute walk from that stop. Buses V21 and 39 have stops right in front of Club Natació Atlètic-Barceloneta)
Cinemas on original language version
A great back-up plan for what to do on a rainy day is to go to a cinema. Most of the cinemas in Barcelona show dubbed films but there are few exceptions around the city that show films in their original language. What’s even better, is that on certain days, normally either on Tuesdays or Wednesdays, they do cheap days. The cinemas in Barcelona are pretty basic, especially the ones that show films in their original version. The following cinemas show films in their original language version.
Icaria Yelmo Plex
The cinema is located downstairs of the shopping centre Centre de la Vila. The films run throughout the day. Comfortable chairs and medium-sized screens. All films on original language version. They sell popcorn, sweets and soft drinks. Right next to the the ticket sales, you find Consum supermarket if you want to save on your snacks. On cheap days, they have deals on popcorn and soft drink combos.
- Website: yelmocines.es
- How to get: Closest metro stop is Ciutadella i Vila Olimpica on line L4. It’s a 8-minute walk from the metro station.
Renoir Cines Floridablanca
The cinema at the Floridablanca street is quite a small cinema but the screens are medium size. Their selections is slightly scarcer than Yelmo Cine Icaria’s. They have comfy seats and they sell to buy popcorn, sweets and soft drinks. They show mainstream films and all their films are shown in the original language version.
- Website: cinesrenoir.com
- How to get: Closest metro stops are Urgell on line L1 and Sant Antoni on line L2.
In the neighborhood of Gracia, you will find Cine Verdi that is split into two buildings. If you can’t find the right screen from the building you’re into that means that you are probably in the wrong building. You can check that with the staff. The two buildings are close to each other but you have to go around the building to enter the next building. The screens are medium size and seats are comfy. They show mainstream films and all their films are showed in original language version.
- Website: grupbalana.com
- How to get: The closest metro stops are Fontana on line L3 and Joanic on line L4. It takes about 5 minutes to walk to the cinema from both stations.
The newest cinema showing films in theirs original language version is located high on Balmes street. The cinema is a bit difficult to get to, but the cinema is modern, and the screens and the audio are the best of all the cinemas in Barcelona, that show films in original language. They show mainstream films, and have pretty good selection of films, equal to Icaria cinema. They sell soft drinks, sweets and popcorn at the cinema.
- Website: cines-verdi.com
- How to get: Take the L7 metro/overground line to Putxet station. It’s a 2-minute walk up the road from there.
Free museum Sundays
Barcelona on budget visitors are surely delighted to hear that certain museums don’t charge an entrance fee on certain dates and hours.
MNAC, Museum Nacional d’Art de Catalunya
The museum of Catalonian Art is a very beautiful building next to Plaça d’Espanya, the same building you see behind the magic fountain. The vast museum holds art work from Roman times to 1950’s.
- Website: museunacional.cat
- How to get: Metro lines L3 and L1, stop at Espanya.
MUHBA, Museum d’Història de Barcelona
Barcelona history museum is spread to various locations where you will find excavations from the Roman times. At the locations, you can witness streets, houses and pottery from the Roman times. I recommend the museum for true history fanatics.
- Website: ajuntament.barcelona.cat
- Opening hours: Please check opening times here: ajuntament.barcelona.cat
Virreina Centre de la Imatge
If you appreciate photography, you might want to check out Virreina image center, that has always interesting photo exhibitions. It’s located on La Rambla and the entrance is always free of charge.
- Website: ajuntament.barcelona.cat
- How to get: Metro line L3, stop at Liceu.
The Picasso museum of Barcelona is one of the most popular sites to visit in Barcelona, especially on the free admission days. The museum holds more than 3,800 art work and it’s especially renowned of Pablo Picasso’s paintings during his studying years.
- Website: museupicasso.bcn.cat
- How to get: Metro line L4, stop at Jaume I.
Centro de Cultura Contemporània de Barcelona (CCCB)
The contemporary museum of Barcelona in the upper Raval is a venue for temporary exhibitions, festivals, concerts, short films, speeches and many more. Worldpress photo exhibition is traditionally exhibited in CCCB.
- Website: cccb.org
- How to get: Metro L1, stop at University or Metro L2, stop at Sant Antoni.
Museu Marítim de Barcelona
In the end of La Rambla street, you will find the area Drassanes, meaning shipyards. Here in the old Royal Shipyards building, you will find the maritime museum of Barcelona. At the museum, you will get to learn about the long maritime traditions of Barcelona through artifacts dating to 13th century.
Tip: A special recommendation is the menu of the day served on weekdays at the museum restaurant.
- Website: www.mmb.cat
- How to get: Metro L3, stop at Drassanes.
Jardí Botànic de Barcelona
From the top of Montjuic hill, you will find the botanical garden of Barcelona where you will find a vast collection of plants from Australia to South Africa.
- Website: museuciencies.cat
- How to get: Metro: Line L1 and Line L3. Station: Plaça Espanya. From Plaça Espanya there is a walk of 2.5 km, which takes around 35 minutes. Buses are also available: No. 150: take the bus at Plaça Espanya/Maria Cristina and get off at the stop in Av. de l’Estadi Olímpic (there is a 5-10 minute walk to the Botanical Garden) No. 13: the stop is in front of the Botanical Garden).
Museums Blau is Barcelona’s own natural history museum and it’s located in the neighborhood of Poblenou. In the museum, you will find permanent and temporary exhibitions on 9000 square meters and in two levels. It takes about 1-2 hours to go through the museum, so no need to plan your whole day there. There are lot of interactive things that will make the museum more interesting for children.
- Website: museuciencies.cat
- How to get: Metro Line L4. stop at Maresme-Forum station (Rambla Prim exit) Tram T4.